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Royal Marines / Royal Naval Division

Discussion in 'United Kingdom' started by Dan Morton, Dec 19, 2015.

  1. Dan Morton A Fixture

    Country:
    United-States
    Wikipedia:
    During World War I, in addition to their usual stations aboard ship, Royal Marines were part of the Royal Naval Division that landed in Belgium in 1914 to help defend Antwerp and later took part in the amphibious landing at Gallipoli in 1915. It also served on the Western Front in the trenches.
    The Division's first two commanders were Royal Marine Artillery Generals. Other Royal Marines acted as landing parties in the Naval campaign against the Turkish fortifications in the Dardanelles before the Gallipoli landings. They were sent ashore to assess damage to Turkish fortifications after bombardment by British and French ships and, if necessary, to complete their destruction. The Royal Marines were the last troops to leave Gallipoli, replacing both British and French troops in a neatly planned and executed withdrawal from the beaches. It even required some Marines to wear French uniforms as part of the deception.
    In 1918, Royal Marines led the Zeebrugge Raid. Five Royal Marines earned the Victoria Cross in the First World War, two at Zeebrugge, one at Gallipoli, one at the Battle of Jutland and one on the Western Front. After the war Royal Marines took part in the allied intervention in Russia.

    http://www.1914-1918.net/63div.htm:
    At the declaration of the war on 4 August 1914, there was a surplus of some 20-30,000 men of the reserves of the Royal Navy who would not find jobs on any ship of war. It was recognised that this was sufficient to form two Naval Brigades and a Brigade of Marines for operations on land.
    The defence of Antwerp (4-10 October 1914)
    [IMG]The Royal Marine Brigade was formed at once and was moved to Oostende on 27 August 1914, although it returned four days later. On 20 September it arrived at Dunkirk with orders to assist in the defence of Antwerp. The two other Brigades moved to Dunkirk for the same purpose on 5 October 1914. In the haste to organise and move the units to Belgium, 80% went to war without even basic equipment such as packs, mess tins or water bottles. No khaki uniform was issued. The two Naval Brigades were armed with ancient charger-loading rifles, just three days before embarking. The Division was orginally titled the Royal Naval Division, and was formed in England in September 1914. At this stage, it had no artillery, Field Ambulances or other ancillary units.
    RND units that managed to successfully withdraw from Antwerp returned to England, arriving 11 October 1914. Approximately 1,500 troops of the 1st Royal Naval Brigade crossed the Dutch frontier to escape from Antwerp and were interned in the Netherlands.

    1915
    After a lengthy period of refit and training (scattered in various locations, and still short of many of the units that ordinarily made up the establishment of a Division), the Division moved to Egypt preparatory to the Gallipoli campaign.
    1916
    By the end of the Division's part in the Gallipoli campaign, very few men with sea service remained. The Division transferred from the authority of the Admiralty to the War Office on 29 April 1916 and was redesignated as the 63rd (Royal Naval) Division on 19 July 1916. The Division moved to France, arriving Marseilles 12-23 May 1916, after which it remained on the Western Front for the rest of the war and took part in the following engagements:
    The Battle of the Ancre, a phase of the Battles of the Somme 1916 (13-18 November 1916)
    1917
    The Operations on the Ancre (January-March 1917)
    The Second Battle of the Scarpe (23-24 April 1917), a phase of the Arras Offensive, in which the Division captured Gavrelle
    The Battle of Arleux (28-29 April 1917), a phase of the Arras Offensive
    The Second Battle of Passchendaele (26 October - 10 November 1917), a phase of the Third Battles of Ypres 1917
    The action of Welsh Ridge (30 December 1917), subsequent to the Cambrai operations
    1918
    The Battle of St Quentin~ (21-23 March 1918)
    The Battle of Bapaume~ (24-25 March 1918)
    The Battle of Albert (21-23 August 1918), a phase of the Second Battles of the Somme 1918 The Battle of Drocourt-Queant (2-3 September 1918), a phase of the Second Battles of Arras 1918
    The Battle of the Canal du Nord (27 September - 1 October 1918)
    The Battle of Cambrai 1918 (8-9 October 1918)
    The passage of the Grand Honelle (5-7 November 1918), a phase of the Final Advance in Picardy
    This unique Division was demobilised in France by April 1919. It had suffered over 47,900 casualties.

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  2. Dan Morton A Fixture

    Country:
    United-States
    More photos...

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