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3 January 1521

Discussion in '"Today in History", Literature & Media Review' started by jai, Jan 3, 2021.

  1. jai A Fixture

    On 3 January 1521, the bull Decet Romanum Pontificem sanctioned the excommunication of MARTIN LUTERO 320px-Lucas_Cranach_d.Ä._-_Martin_Luther,_1528_(Veste_Coburg).jpg

    following the failure to retract his positions, ordered by the previous papal bull Exurge Domine issued by Pope Leo X 800px-Raffael_042.jpg

    on 15 June 1520 in response to both the 95 theses on indulgences posted by Luther in 1517 on the portal of the cathedral of Wittenberg that to the later writings of the German theologian.


    The bull forbade Catholics to have any contact with Lutherans and provided for the penalty of interdiction for all territories and sacred places that had been visited by them or that had given them hospitality.
    For Luther's followers it was also ordered the "deprivation of dignity, honors and property over them and their descendants, and declared unfitness for the goods themselves; the confiscation of their property and the crime of lese majesty".

    In response to the Exurge Domine, Luther on 10 December 1520 had publicly set fire to the volumes of canon law, as well as to the papal bull itself.

    When the excommunication was issued on January 3, 1521,it was up to the lay authority (and therefore to the Emperor) to ensure the arrest of the heretic and deliver him to Rome.
    Thus in April 1521 Charles V 320px-Karl_V_HRR_MATEO.jpg
    summoned Luther to the Diet of Worms to further verify the possibility of retracting: Luther arrived there on April 16, 1521 and the next day he appeared before the Diet and the emperor; he was asked if he was willing to retract and he unexpectedly asked for a day to reflect.
    The next day he delivered the famous answer:
    "If I am not convinced by the testimonies of Scripture and clear rational reasons - since I do not believe either in the pope or in the councils alone, it being evident that they have often erred - I am overcome by my conscience and a prisoner of the word of God by reason of the passages of Sacred Scripture that I have adduced. Therefore I cannot and do not want to withdraw, as it is neither safe nor healthy to act against one's conscience. God help me. Amen".

    Charles V declared himself willing to respect the safe conduct that he had granted to Luther and allowed him to leave; at the same time, however, he affirmed that he was determined to "act against him as against a notorious heretic" and asked the orders to keep faith with the promise that had been made to him, that is, that they would collaborate in the monk's capture if he refused to retract.
    The edict of Worms (May 1521), with which Luther was banned, formalized these decisions: Luther was an outlaw and a public enemy, anyone could kill him with impunity, sure of the approval of the authorities.
    Luther's situation became extremely dangerous and there were those who feared, and who hoped, that the whole affair would end, as so many other times in the past, with the stake.
    However, the figure of Luther had become a symbol: that rebel monk already had many supporters in various strata of German society.

    Frederick III of Saxony Lucas_Cranach_d._Ä._097.jpg organized a false kidnapping to free Luther from imperial justice.
    On the way back from Worms, in fact, Luther (whose safe-conduct had not yet expired) was kidnapped by the emissaries of his patron Frederick the Savio and saved in the remote castle of Wartburg, in Thuringia, wartburg1.jpg where he remained for ten months under the false name of Knight Jorg, while he attended to the German translation of the Bible and the drafting of new writings.

    And thus began a new history of Europe.
    Luther's battle had aroused an immense echo throughout Germany. Over three hundred thousand copies of her writings were printed and where the written word did not reach there were the preachings of the numerous converted ecclesiastics who portrayed the pope as the antichrist, the Church of Rome as a harlot, Luther as the prophet sent by God for the great change of humanity. Luther's message had touched deep chords, those of widespread anti-clericalism and the exasperation aroused by the rapacity of the Church and its moral and spiritual degeneration.
    The enthusiasm generated by the Lutheran Reformation began to spread to many European countries, and the first that was affected was neighboring Switzerland. Right there, near Zurich, the theologian and humanist Huldrych Zwingli 41850838_125272910474.jpg - who in his youth had long fed on the works of Erasmus of Rotterdam - at the beginning of the twenties of the sixteenth century began to publicly comment on the Gospel by attacking the money-hungry curia. in order to reach a necessary ethical-religious renewal of the Christian life.
    Zwingli preached the abolition of the cult of saints and degenerate religious orders, aiming to establish a more simplified and therefore higher religious doctrine. From that moment on, with the support of local authorities, he began to implement a plan of political and religious reforms, in an anti-papal and anti-curial key. During the following years (1528-1531) Switzerland split: some centers, such as Basel and Bern, followed the Protestant Reformation, while many other cantons, above all Friborg and Valais, joined in a Catholic alliance. The religious and political clash would soon degenerate into an armed confrontation, and during the Battle of Kappel (1531) Zwingli died there.
    In Switzerland still divided and devastated by armed clashes, a young French theologian named Giovanni Calvino (Jehan Cauvin) giovanni-calvino.jpg found shelter. In Geneva he devoted himself for years to the reorganization of the religious, political and social life of the city, codifying the Lutheran theses and accentuating the theme of predestination. His doctrine, called Calvinist, reserved to religion the task of guiding politics and inspiring all the social behavior of the faithful, who proclaimed themselves "communities of the elect".

    For years, Genevan society would have represented the ideal refuge for a large number of Protestants fleeing the Catholic persecutions of their countries.

    Calvinism would soon travel all over the world, spreading first in central Europe and then in eastern Europe (in Scotland, introduced and consolidated by John Knox, it took the name of Presbyterianism; in France, where the Calvinists took the name of Huguenots; in the Netherlands , in which it established itself as a Reformed Church; in England, where it gave rise to the current of the Puritans), even reaching the English colonies in America.

    Precisely in the New World, the main religious characteristics of Calvinists such as confidence in their own work, the proud affirmation of individuality and the search for success as proof of divine favor, will produce the tumultuous development of capitalism, the United States and the revolution. industrial.

    I stop here, I have already gone further.....

    as in yesterday's story this too has brought a lot of luck to our collections;)
    greetings from the heretic Giorgio
    Nap, Old Pete and grasshopper like this.
  2. grasshopper A Fixture

    Good one Jai
    jai likes this.
  3. Nap Moderator

    Great thread there Jan

    Thanks for taking the time

  4. jai A Fixture

    unfortunately I have bigger commitments than me in this period .. I would write more .. I think it was the last appointment with history and I hope that Martin will resume
  5. Airkid PlanetFigure Supporter

    Quality work Jai. Thank you for your excellent efforts during Martin's holiday. Much appreciated!

    jai and grasshopper like this.
  6. grasshopper A Fixture

    Most definitely
    jai likes this.

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